Dubrovnik, historically known as Ragusa, is a city on the Adriatic Sea.
The history of the city probably dates back to the 7th century, when the town known as Ragusa was founded by refugees from Epidaurum (Ragusa Vecchia). It was under the protection of the Byzantine Empire and later under the sovereignty of the Republic of Venice. Between the 14th and 19th centuries, Dubrovnik ruled itself as a free state. The prosperity of the city was historically based on maritime trade; as the capital of the maritime Republic of Ragusa, it achieved a high level of development, particularly during the 15th and 16th centuries, as it became notable for its wealth and skilled diplomacy. At the same time, Dubrovnik became a cradle of Croatian literature.
The entire city was almost destroyed when a devastating earthquake hit in 1667. During the Napoleonic Wars, Dubrovnik was occupied by the French Empire forces, and then the Republic of Ragusa was abolished and incorporated into the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy and later into the Illyrian Provinces. Later on, in the early 19th to early 20th century, Dubrovnik was part of the Kingdom of Dalmatia within the Austrian Empire. Dubrovnik became part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia immediately upon its creation, and it was incorporated into its Zeta Banovina in 1929, before becoming part of the Banovina of Croatia upon its creation in 1939. During World War II, it was part of the Axis puppet state Independent State of Croatia, before being reincorporated into SR Croatia in SFR Yugoslavia.
In 1991, during the Croatian War of Independence, Dubrovnik was besieged by the Yugoslav People's Army for seven months and suffered significant damage from shelling. After undergoing repair and restoration works in the 1990s and early 2000s, it re-emerged as one of the Mediterranean's top tourist destinations, as well as a popular filming location.
Dubrovnik with the huge defensive wall. (1030k) Tower on the defensive wall. (1.5M) Fortification on the land side. (1038k) Fortification on the sea side. (772k) Sea side of the wall. (1069k) Sea side of the wall. (1327k) Sea side of the wall. (1061k) View of the north wall. (1216k) North wall (right) and west wall. (1042k) West wall (right) and south wall. (1260k) Tvrđava Minčeta, 14th century fortress on the highest point of the wall. (878k) West wall and fortification on the next promontory. (978k) On the city wall. (1008k) On the city wall. (838k) Entrance gate. (899k) Entrance gate. (1058k) Port of Dubrovnik. (1038k) View from the northern wall over eastern Old Town, with the Dominican Monastery and Church at left and the Bell Tower at right. (1115k) View from the northern wall over central Old Town, with (from left to right) the Bell Tower, the Cathedral, St Blaise's Church, and Church of Saint Ignatius. (968k) View from the northern wall over western Old Town, with the Franciscan Church and Monastery at center right. (1067k) View down Stradun, the main street of Old Town Dubrovnik towards the Bell Tower with the Franciscan Church and Monastery on the left. (1050k) Alley in Old Town. (998k) Large Onofrio's Fountain from 1438. (1073k) Small Onofrio's Fountain from 1440. (975k) Lazzarettos of Dubrovnik, from 16th century, a group of interconnected buildings 300 m (980 ft) from the walls of Dubrovnik, once used as a quarantine station for the Republic of Ragusa. (1369k) Rector's Palace. (1003k) Entrance to the Rector's Palace. (1056k) Sponza Palace from 1522. (1085k) Sponza Palace from 1522. (1131k) Interior of the Sponza Palace. (867k) Dubrovnik Bell Tower from 1444. (1114k) View over Old Town from the harbor, with the Cathedral of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary on the left and Church of Saint Ignatius on the right. (892k) St Blaise's Church from 1715 and the Dubrovnik Bell Tower. (1359k) St Blaise's Church. (878k) Cathedral of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary. (1330k) Triptych of "Ascension of Mary" by Titian (circa 1550) in the Cathedral of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary. (724k) Altar in the Cathedral of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary. (895k) Altar in the Cathedral of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary. (868k) Altar in the Cathedral of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary. (714k) Organ in the Cathedral of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary. (833k) Church of Saint Ignatius. (1414k) Stairs to the Church of Saint Ignatius. (1186k) Saint Carmen Church. (1205k) Franciscan Church and Monastery from 1317. (1370k) Franciscan Church and Monastery on the left, (970k) Entrance gate to the Franciscan Church. (1289k) Figure on the entrance gate. (1495k) Dominican Monastery and Church. (1125k) Dominican Monastery and Church. (1437k)