Zagreb is a city with a rich history dating from Roman times. The oldest settlement in the vicinity of the city was the Roman Andautonia, in today's Ščitarjevo. The name "Zagreb" is recorded in 1134, in reference to the foundation of the settlement at Kaptol in 1094. Zagreb became a free royal city in 1242. In 1851, Zagreb had its first mayor, Janko Kamauf.
The oldest settlement located near today's Zagreb was a Roman town of Andautonia, now Ščitarjevo, which existed between the 1st and the 5th century CE. The first recorded appearance of the name Zagreb is dated to 1094, at which time the city existed as two different city centers: the smaller, eastern Kaptol, inhabited mainly by clergy and housing Zagreb Cathedral, and the larger, western Gradec, inhabited mainly by craftsmen and merchants. Gradec and Kaptol were united in 1851 by ban Josip Jelačić, who was credited for this, with the naming the main city square, Ban Jelačić Square in his honor.
During the period of former Yugoslavia, Zagreb remained an important economic center of the country, and was the second largest city. After Croatia declared independence from Yugoslavia, Zagreb was proclaimed its capital.
Kralj Tomislav Square with the Art Pavilion in the back. (1229k) Buildings along Kralj Tomislav Square. (1020k) Art Pavilion. (903k) Statue of Kralj Tomislav, first king of Croatia in the early 10th century. (665k) Statue of Count Josip Jelačić. He abandoned serfdom in Croatia. (911k) Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts. (1339k) Meteorological Post, a sophisticated weather station from 1896. (1467k) Shopping Mall from the early 20th century. (888k) Octagon in the Shopping Mall from the early 20th century. (1213k) Monument of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary. (768k) Cathedral of Zagreb from 1093. (777k) Cathedral of Zagreb. (683k) New entrance to the cathedral. (1096k) Stone figures from the portal of the cathedral from 1643. Jesus is in the top center, flanked by the apostles. (982k) One of the apostles. (1025k) Marble statue from the cathedral. (850k) Wooden figure from the cathedral. (868k) Water spout from the cathedral. (902k) Fortification around the cathedral. (946k) Church of Saint Mark from the 13th century in Upper Zagreb. The shield on the left is Croatia, the one on the right is Zagreb. (784k) Greek Catholic Co-cathedral of Saints Cyril and Methodius in Upper Zagreb. (873k) Mosaic on the Church of Saints Cyril and Methodius. (1037k) Lotrščak Tower in Upper Zagreb. (788k) Wrought iron gate to the history institute in Upper Zagreb. (1257k) This was a 14th century pharmacy in Upper Zagreb. (809k) Old city gate with a chapel inside in Upper Zagreb. (982k) The sun (about 2 m (7 ft) in diameter) in the solar system model in Zagreb. It has the sun and nine planets both in size and distance from the sun to scale. The scale is 1:680 000 000. (1065k) Venus in the scale solar system model. It is 159 m (522 ft) from the sun and 1.8 cm (0.7") in diameter. (1433k)